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2019-06-18 18:54:36共2019人围观
简介What are some brain hacks that a neuroscientist or a psychologist knows that most people don't?哪些用脑秘诀大多数人不知道只有神经学家或心理学家知道?

What are some brain hacks that a neuroscientist or a psychologist knows that most people don't?哪些用脑秘诀大多数人不知道只有神经学家或心理学家知道?

获得131.5k好评的回答@Dylan James:

The Psychology of Persuasion说服心理

Everyone has to engage in some form of persuasion throughout most of their life. Whether you are deciding with friends where to eat lunch or convincing a boss you deserve a promotion, you can always benefit from knowing the secrets of persuasion.每个人一生中大部分时间都会有说服别人的经历。无论是和朋友决定午餐地点或说服老板该给你升职,知道说服的秘诀总能给你带来好处。

In Dr. Robert Cialdini's bestselling book "Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, " what he found was :在Robert Cialdini博士的畅销书《影响:说服心理》(Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion)中,他发现:

Behavior is heavily influenced by unconscious psychological factors无意识的心理因素对行为影响很大

These psychological factors can be identified and utilized这些心理因素可以被确认并加以利用

If used correctly, people have no idea that they are being manipulated如果使用得当,人们都不知道他们正在被控制


Free samples. Have you ever seen free samples being handed out in grocery stores or while walking down the street? Rest assured they aren't doing this out of the kindness of their hearts. Studies have shown a dramatic increase in efficacy of marketing tactics if they are preceded by a "gift" which triggers a natural feeling of debt in the target.免费样品。你在商店里或走在街上时是否见过有人发放免费样品?他们这样做肯定不是出于好心。研究已经表明如果卖东西之前先赠送一个小礼物的话,营销效果会有戏剧性的提高,因为这个小礼物会激起目标人群自然的欠债心理。


An amazingly powerful concept. People will go to extraordinary lengths without even realizing it, just to remain consistent with their past actions and beliefs. This principle is especially significant if past behavior is public or written down, in which case it can't be denied.一个影响力惊人的概念。人们会下意识地竭尽全力,只是为了坚持以往的行为和信念。如果以往行为被公开或被记录下来的话就不可否认,那这个原则就会显得尤为重要。

Social Proof社会证明

Why are there those silly laugh tracks on sit com TV shows? Because they work! People are extremely susceptible to the opinions of others, even when obviously false.为什么情景喜剧里会有那些傻笑的背景声音呢?因为它们很有效!人们非常容易受其他人想法影响,甚至在这些想法明显错误时也会如此。


In the aftermath of World War II and the atrocities committed by many seemingly normal Nazi commanders, greater attention was focused on the nature of authority in influencing people's behavior. It turns out, authority is one of the most powerful effects yet discovered.二战过后,在那些貌似正常的纳粹军官所犯的罪行中,权威影响人们行为的特性引起了人们更多的关注。结果证明权威是已知的最具影响力的事物之一。


We all know that we are more likely to respond to a request from somebody we like than from somebody we dislike. But how much further does this feeling go? Apparently, a lot further!我们都知道相对于我们不喜欢的人提出的要求我们更有可能会对喜欢的人的要求作出回应,这两种感觉之间有多大差距呢?显然是天壤之别。


One of the most fundamental attributes of persuasion, salespeople have been using the concept of scarcity for a very long time (ever hear or see the phrase "limited time only")? This one is also of interest to the relatively new field of behavioral economics.这是说服力最基本的特质之一。销售人员很久以来一直利用这个概念(是否听过或看过“时间有限”这样的话?)这个理念对于行为经济学这一新兴领域来说也是很有趣的。

获得462.4k好评的回答@Colin Gerber:

Memory consolidation and productivity can both be improved by taking breaks.记忆力的增强和工作能力均可以通过休息来提高。

Memory consolidation:增强记忆力:

Tambini et al. recently showed that resting your brain after learning is very important in memory consolidation. During rest the hippocampus is able to transfer information to the cortex to be stored. The brain cannot do this very effectively if you do not take breaks.Tambini et al.最近表明学习之后让大脑休息对于巩固记忆力非常重要。休息期间海马体能把信息转移到大脑皮层储存起来。如果不休息大脑就不能有效完成这个过程。


It is suggested that you work in 60-90 minute intervals and then take a break. Ericsson et al. conducted a very interesting study looking at elite and average violin players and how much they practiced. They found that the elite players practiced for about the same amount of time as the good players per day. However, the elite players would practice very hard for no more than 90 minutes and then take breaks and even naps in between while the average players would practice throughout the day but with less focus.建议你每工作60-90分钟就休息一会儿。Ericsson et al.进行了一个非常有趣的研究,他观察了优秀的和普通的小提琴演奏家以及他们练习的多少,发现优秀的演奏家和普通的演奏者每天练习的总时间是一样的,但优秀的演奏家勤奋练习的时间不超过90分钟,然后就会休息甚至睡一会再练,而普通的演奏者整天不间断练习,但注意力却不够集中。

获得24.3k好评的回答@Dean Yeong:

The world is so full of creeping dementia that forgetting feels ominous. If learning is building up skills and knowledge, then forgetting is losing some of what was gained. It seems like the enemy of learning.世界上有这么多反应慢的痴呆以至于遗忘让人感觉很不好。如果学习是在积累技巧和知识,那么遗忘就是丢掉已经得到的东西,它似乎是学习的敌人。

It's not. The truth is nearly the opposite.其实不然,事实上恰恰相反。

One upside of forgetting is that it is nature’s most sophisticated spam filter. It's what allows the brain to focus, enabling sought-after facts to pop to mind.遗忘的一个好处就是它是自然中最复杂的过滤器,它能让大脑集中注意力,使大脑能想起最想找的信息。

We engage in this kind of focused forgetting all the time without giving it much thought. To lock in a new computer password, we must block the old one from coming to mind; to absorb a new language, we must hold off the corresponding words in our native tongue.我们一直在进行这种集中注意力的遗忘却不自知。为了记住新的电脑密码,我们必须忘掉旧的;为了学习新的语言,我们就不能去想母语里相同意思的词。

As the 19th century American psychologist William James observed:If we remembered everything, we should on most occasions be as ill off as we remembered nothing.正如19世纪美国心理学家William James所观察到的:如果我们记住一切,那么大多数情况下就会感觉自己好像什么都没记住。